A Conceptual Framework for Exploring Relationship Matrix Between Advertising Effectiveness And Media Types

Abstract :

Advertisements are designed to fulfill objectives ranging from awareness to induce purchase. Evaluation of effectiveness of advertisements in reference to their ability of accomplishing the objectives has been of great significance and point of research since long. eMarketer (2017) reported that global ad spends is on a constant rise and is going to be $583.91 billion for the year 2017, 7.3% more than the previous year. With this size amount of money involved in advertising, researchers/authors/academicians/corporate decision makers have always been keen on ascertainment of the outcome against desired objectives. Advertising has been at times subtly and many a times conspicuous and aggressive to pursue the agenda of advertising objective accomplishment. Cost of advertising across different media types, competition at the market place and complexity of the customer comprehension have made advertising decision extremely complex. In wake of the above, it is imperative to explore relationship between advertising effectiveness and media types. The present paper intends to explore the relational impact between the advertising effectiveness and different media types.

Keywords :
Advertising effectiveness, Media types, Relationship matrix.
Introduction :

According to India Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF) report, in 2017 Indian advertising industry is estimated to be Rs. 63,000 Crore with both print and TV having a share of 38-40% each. With the involvement of such a huge sum of money in advertising and to get the desired effect according to the advertising objectives , researchers/academicians and organizations are focusing highly on assessment of the effectiveness of advertisement since long.

Media has been an important contributing component in determination of advertising effectiveness. Many studies emphasized that choice of advertising medium is critical in determining advertising effectiveness. With the advent of new technologies and development of newer forms of media, the choice of media became highly complex. As Consterdine (2003) proposed a model indicating how mixed media strategy could improve the effectiveness of advertising. Hence, not only the choice of media but also deciding on media mix for advertisements has also been an important strategy to improve the effectiveness.

Exploring reasons and structure of a research towards establishing the relationship matrix between the advertising objectives and media types thus is inevitable. This leads to reduce the wastage of precious resources which many studies emphasized to be optimized. The result will provide the marketers and advertisers a relationship matrix that may be used in resource allocation across media types in order to accomplish their respective advertising objectives. The study will help in identifying the most effective and cost efficient media type for advertising. This paper helps in strategic planning of mix media to accomplish their advertising objectives.


Advertising : Advertising is an important tool through which advertisers or organizations communicate with their customers, not only their current customers but also those who are their potential customers. It is an important tool through which organizations spread information about their product & services and try to get attention of the consumers and persuade them to purchase their product or services.

Many researchers, academicians and organizations have defined advertising; The American Marketing Association (1963) defined advertising as “Paid form of non-personal presentation of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor.” William J. Stanton (1964) stated that the advertising consists of all activities involved in presenting to a group, a non-personal, oral or visual, openly sponsor identified message regarding a product, service or idea. This message, called an advertisement, is disseminated through one or more media and is paid for by the identified sponsor. Don E. Schultz (1980) said that advertising is simply a communication of a sales or persuasive message designed to affect attitudes or behaviors toward the advertised product. He also opined that advertising consists of only two basic parts, the creative product or message and the medium or method used to get the message to the audience. He also added that the primary goal of advertising is to get the right message to the right audience at the right time.

David Ogilvy (1983) defined advertising as a medium for information, a message for a single purpose: to sell. According to Russel J. Thomas & Lane W. Ronald (1996), “Advertising is a message paid for by an identified sponsor and delivered through some medium of mass communication. Advertising is a persuasive communication. It is not neutral; it is not unbiased; it says, I am going to sell you a product or an idea.” John J. Burnett (1998) opined that the advertising is the non-personal communication of marketing related information to a target audience, usually paid for by the advertiser, and delivered through mass media in order to reach the specific objectives of the sponsor. Thus we can conclude that advertising is a marketing communication by an organization or identified sponsor of a persuasive message about an idea, goods or services (Product or idea) in order to form or change the attitude of consumers towards the advertised products.

Advertising Media :

Medium is a vehicle for carrying the sales message of an advertiser to the prospects (Chunawalla & Sethia, 2008). It is a channel of communication - a means through which people send and receive information. It is a vehicle by which advertisers convey their messages to a large group of prospects and thereby aid in closing the gap between producer at one end and the consumer at another. The term 'media' includes the whole range of modern communication media: television, the cinema, video, radio, photography, newspapers and magazines, recorded music, computer games and the internet (Buckingham, 2003).

Media Types :

There are many choices of advertising media. Segmenting media is an important activity in designing quality advertisement and affecting advertising effectiveness. To do so, the advantages and disadvantages of each individual medium must be understood so that an advertising campaign features successful combinations (Kenneth E. Clow and Donald Baack, 2007). Based on the literature input, advertising media types, hence been grouped in following 6 categories (Table 1):






1. Electronics Media


Good mass market coverage; low cost per exposure; combines sight, sound, and motion; appealing to the senses 

High absolute costs; fleeting exposure; less audience selectivity 


Good         local          acceptance; high          geographic                 and

demographic selectivity; low cost 

Audio only, fleeting exposure; low attention (the half-heard” medium); fragmented audiences 


Many users; opportunity to give a personal touch

Relative high cost; increasing consumer resistance

2. Print Media


Flexibility; timeliness; good local market coverage; broad acceptability; high believability 

Short life; poor reproduction quality; small pass-along audience 


Demographic selectivity; credibility and prestige; long life and good pass-along readership 

Long ad purchase lead time; high cost; no guarantee of position 

Yellow Pages

Excellent local coverage; high believability; wide reach; low cost

High competition; long ad purchase lead time; creative Limitations

3. Outdoor Media


Flexibility; high repeat exposure; low cost; good positional selectivity 

Little audience selectivity, creative limitations, Short term impact.


High Coverage; Targeted audience

Comparatively expensive; Short term impact.

4. Internet


High selectivity; low cost; immediacy; interactive capabilities 

Small, demographically skewed audience; relatively low impact; audience controls exposure 


Easy to work with; convenient to use; huge viral potential.

Platform too diverse; Privacy issues.

5. Direct Mail

Direct mail

High audience selectivity; flexibility; no ad competition within the same medium; allows personalization 

Relatively high cost per exposure; “junk mail” image 


Very high selectivity; full control; interactive opportunities; relative low costs

Costs could run away


Flexibility; full control; can dramatize messages  

Overproduction could lead to runaway costs

6. Point of Purchase (POP)

Point of Purchase (POP)

Place based advertising; Influencial; Effective; 

 Limited reach, Limited targeting

Table 1. Profile of major media types (Source: Kotlar et al. 13th ed.)
Advertising Effectiveness :

Kotlar (2012) defined an advertising objective is a specific task and achievement level to be accomplished with a specific audience in a specific period of time through a specific communication which can be Informative (where aim is to create brand awareness and knowledge of new products or new features of existing products), Persuasive (Where aim is to create liking, preference, conviction and purchase of a product or service), Reminder (Where aim is to stimulate repeat purchase of products and services) and Reinforcement (Where aim is to convince current purchasers that they had made the right choice).

Hopkins (1923) introduced research as part of the scientific advertising. He was the first advertising giant to make use of sampling and test markets to assess advertising effectiveness. He argued that the sole purpose of advertising is sales (Hopkins, 1945). He studied thoroughly the analysis of the effects stimulated by direct advertising; he had compared the response of each action and proposed a model examined the advertising effectiveness through its effect on sales. Kover (1976) had a greater insight into the structure of consumer's decision and pointed that there are many other factors other than sales which are affecting advertising effectiveness such as attitude and attitude change. Olney et al. (1991) suggested that the advertisement can be constructed to achieve particular responses according to the nature of the communication and desired marketing objectives, therefore the order in which consumer respond to an advertisement is advertising effectiveness (Vaughn 1980; Rossiter et al. 1991).

The effectiveness of advertising should be considered for its effect on sales in the short term. The advertising is therefore regarded as an independent variable that can be combined with other marketing variables to have a certain effect on the dependent variable, i.e. sales (Batra et al., 1995). According to Tellis (2004), “the effectiveness of advertising is a highly complex phenomenon and depends fundamentally on human response to communication and how it is communicated. It involves attention, processing, recall and response to appeal.” The extent to which advertising generates a certain desired effect is term as advertising effectiveness (Elisabetta Corvi, 2010).

Factors Affecting Advertising Effectiveness :

Stewart and Furse (1986) found that a unique product message or brand-differentiating message (Valiente 1973, Holbrook and Lehmann 1980, and Rossiter 1981) was the most important single factor in determining both recall and persuasion in advertising. Percy (1988) considered the impact of paralinguistic phenomenon on advertising response. The influence of music in advertising has also received considerable attention (Gorn 1982, Macklin 1988, Stout and Leckenby 1988, Haley et al. 1984).
Brett et al. (2002) explored the influence of infomercial advertisement design elements upon perceptions of advertising effectiveness and indicated that infomercial advertising is more effective when employing expert comments, testimonials, product demonstrations and the use of target market models, celebrity endorsers, product comparisons and bonus offers. Age was also found to be impacting consumer's viewership of infomercials.






Time; Money, Information reception and processing capabilities [Shao et al. 2015]  


Product knowledge, Usage knowledge, Purchase knowledge [Harari et al. 2009] 


Product knowledge, Usage knowledge, Purchase knowledge [Harari et al. 2009] 

 Cognitive (Beliefs), Affective Component (Feelings), [Nesbit et al. 2011] Conative Component (Behavioral Intentions) [Engel



Need, Involvement, Self-concept [Nesbit et al. 2011]  



Aggressive, Sociable, Detached [Brierley 1997]  

Personal Values

 Comfortable, Exciting, Peace, Beauty, Equality, Security, Freedom, Happiness, Self-respect, Friendship, Wisdom [Ashok V.

Giri 2016] 


 Activities; Interests, Opinions, Demographics [Ashok V. Giri 2016] 



 Picture, Animation, Audio, Video, Multimedia [Benedixen 1993] 

Physical factors

Size, Position, Shape, Color, Contrast, Intensity, Isolation Movement, Scene changes [Malthouse 2007] 


Price or value, Quality, Performance, Components or contents, Availability, Special offer, Taste, Package or shape, Guarantee or warrantees, Safety, Nutrition, Independent research, Company sponsored research, New ideas [Abernethy 1996] 

Product / service 


 Arts & Humanities, Business & Economy, Computers & Internet,  Education, Entertainment, Government, Health, News & Media, Recreation & Sports, Reference, Regional, Science, Social Science, Society & Culture [Ashok V. Giri 2016] 


 Worldwide, National wide, Local [Taylor 1994] 


 Price or value, Quality, Performance [Brett et al. 2002] 



 Newspapers, Magazines, Radio, TV, Direct mail, Internet, Outdoor, Yellow page [Aaker 1992 & Aduloju 2009]


Conveying details, Stimulating emotions, Changing attitude, Involving the audience, Precipitating action, Cost to reach target market, Creating awareness, Communicating product/brand image, Communicating corporate image [Leong 1998]



 Values, Norms, Relationships, Work habits and practice, Language, Time consciousness, Beliefs and attitude [Srivastava 2010

& Shao et al. 2015] 

Social class

 Income, Wealth, Power, Occupation, Class consciousness, Interaction [Ashok V. Giri 2016, Srivastava 2010 ] 

Personal influence

Reference groups influence, Word-of-mouth influence [Degraffenreid 2006] 



 Individual roles, Spousal roles, Feminist roles, Gender, Singles, Divorce, Late marriages [Ashok V. Giri 2016] 

Table 2 : Factors of Advertising Effectiveness (Source: Giri, 2016)

Tali et al. (2009) investigated the role of the product involvement variable (Traylor 1981; Celsi & Olson 1988; Havitz & Howard 1995; Iwasaki & Havitz 1998), age group (Robertson & Rossiter 1974; Atkin 1975; Wartella 1981; Van Evra 1990; Pawlowski et al. 1998), type of argument and character attractiveness (Petty & Cacioppo 1981; Cacioppo & Petty 1989) in advertising and found that advertising effectiveness is significantly and positively influenced by product involvement and significantly and negatively influenced by age group. Advertising effectiveness is also influenced by type of argument but is not influenced by the character attractiveness in the advertisement. The effect of culture (Wells et al. 1992, Milner and Collin 2000, Dahl 2005, Khanh and Hau 2007, keegan 2008) Consumer's age, education, and religion also found to be affecting effectiveness of global advertisement (Srivastava, 2010). The influence of culture is particularly important in advertising because communication patterns are closely linked to cultural norms (Farias, 2012, Hong et al., 1987). The advertising effectiveness can be achieved through the interactions of different actors which are consumers, advertisement, product/service, medium, and environment (Giri, 2016). These actors have their own attributes or factors which affect the effectiveness of an advertisement. The factors influencing the advertising effectiveness are shown in Table 2.

Measuring Advertising Effectiveness :

Advertising effectiveness measurement started in 1930s based on advertising recall and recognition measures. Gallup developed a memory measure based on the premise that an ad was not effective only if recognized by the consumer, but should also be spontaneously recalled unaided (Gallup, 1974).

Hopkins (1945) proposed sale to be the sole measure of advertising effectiveness. The main criticisms of this measurement model was that it does not take into account the mid and long term effects of advertising on sales nor the existence of intermediate variables that may influence the consumer between receiving the advertising stimulus and the purchase (Alloza, et al., 2000). Buzell (1964) suggested that persuasion analyses methods are a true indicative variable of effective advertising. He argued that the quality of the message is more important than expenditure in producing short-term changes in market share. Fothergill and Ehrenberg (1965) utilized the applications of this model and said that this leaves the advertising research industry indifferent however.

The three most acceptable models for measuring advertising effectiveness were characterized by presenting the existence of intermediate variables between the advertising stimulus and sales. These models are AIDA, DAGMAR and Steiner-Lavidge. These models are based on the premise that advertising influences each of the steps in the purchase process for a product or service. Research must be able to measure the influence of advertising in the process to purchase, in its different stages (Lavidge & Steiner, 1961).
AIDA is a functional formula devised by E.K. Strong (1925) for Attention (A), Interest (I) Desire (D), and Action (A).
Attention : The main function of an advertisement is to attract attention of the consumers.
Interest : An advertisement is designed to create interest for the goods or services of the advertiser.
Desire : A good advertisement should be able to create desire in the minds of the consumers.
Action : This is an important stage where the advertiser can study the impact of his advertisement. If the advertisement has attracted attention, aroused interest, created desire, then the advertisement should appeal the prospect to act i.e., to come forward for making purchases. DAGMAR model for arousing consumer interests was developed by Russen Colley (1961) in his study entitled “Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results.” The study begins from a point where the consumer is not aware about the existence of the product. He will have to go through the following steps:
Awareness : When the consumer is asked to mention the name of a brand of product, perhaps he is in a position to recollect the name of a specific brand only.
Comprehension : The consumer is conscious about the main sales theme of a brand of product. When asked upon, he is able to associate a brand with the sales theme, which is already known to him.
Conviction : At the stage of conviction, the consumer is able to foresee how the benefits of the brand of goods will serve his need. He is convinced that if he purchases this brand of goods it would be a right decision.
Motivation : Having been convinced, the prospect is motivated to buy a specific brand of goods.

Fig. 1 : Response Hierarchy Models (Source: Kotlar et al. 13th ed.)

The Hierarchy of Effects (Lavidge & Steiner) Modelwas created in 1961 by Robert J. Lavidge and Gary A Steiner. This marketing communication model, suggested that there are six steps a customer goes through from viewing a product advertisement to purchase of the product. The six steps are as follows:
Awareness: The customer becomes aware of the product through advertising.
Knowledge : The customer begins to gain knowledge about the product for example through the internet, retail advisors and product packaging.
Liking: As the title states, this step are about ensuring that the customer likes your product.
Preference : Consumers may like more than one product brand and could end up buying any one of them. At this stage advertisers will want the consumer to disconnect from rival products and focus on their particular product.
Conviction : This stage is about creating the customer's desire to purchase the product. Advertisers may encourage conviction by allowing consumers to test or sample the product.
Purchase : Having proceeded through the above stages, the advertiser wants the customer to purchase their product. This stage needs to be simple and easy, otherwise the customer will get fed up and walk away without a purchase. Lavidge and Steiner (1961) suggested that the six steps can be split into three stages of consumer behavior: cognitive, affective and conative. The job of the advertiser is to promote the three behaviors.

  • Cognitive (thinking) so that the consumer becomes product aware and gathers product knowledge.
  • Affective (feeling) so that the consumer likes the product brand and has conviction in it.
  • Conative (behavior) so that the consumer buys the product brand

These models are known as a "hierarchy" because the number of consumers moving from one stage to the next reduces, as one move through the model. There may be a lots of consumers that see the product advertisement but not everyone will make a purchase. It takes lots of work to take a consumer from awareness to the final stage of purchase, so businesses need to ensure that they try their utmost to get customers from conviction to complete the final stage of purchase. Brown (1991) pointed out that advertising does not produce changes in attitude at the very moment when the consumer is exposed to it, but its effect occurs later.

Vaughn (1980) developed a new advertising strategic planning model based on fundamentals of the advertising process. For this he relied on the traditional theories of advertising, consumer behavior models and the latest developments in advertising research. The new model was based on the design of a product classification matrix relating the consumer's involvement (high or low, x and y axes) and whether they were rational products (requiring detailed information) or emotional, abscissa axis. Thus,four quadrants were formed for the development of advertising strategies: informative strategy (rational-high involvement), affective strategy (emotional-high involvement), habitual strategy (rational-low involvement), and satisfaction strategy (emotional-low involvement). The model proposed by Vaughn harmonizes and puts together all different theories with the objective of their culmination, the model known as “The FCB Grid” (Vaughn, 1986) (Table. 3).

Table-3 : The FCB Grid (Source: Bendixen, 1993)

Gibson (1983) analyzed the effectiveness of research techniques based on persuasion versus recall; he couldn't found any association between recall and persuasion measures, while there had been evidence of the relationship between persuasion measures with sales. Rossiter and Eagleson (1994) believed that likeability was one of the most important factors in predicting the effectiveness of an advertising campaign. He carried out a study showing that likeability exceeds persuasion and notoriety as a measure of prediction (Brown, 1991).

Heath (2001) questioned the traditional models used in advertising research and showed how most advertising is processed at an emotional level (not at rational level). From this point, techniques were developed analyzing emotions provoked by the brands on the consumer. He defined emotional engagement as the amount of subconscious feeling (emotional thoughts) going on when an advertisement is processed. Heath (2009) defined attention as the conscious thinking flowing through while processing an ad while engagement is defined as the amount of subconscious emotional feeling going on at the same time. He further emphasized that the importance of these two definitions has been is that they do not overlap. In other words, advertising can generate high attention but low engagement, and also high engagement with low attention (Heath, 2009).

Role Of Media In Determining Advertising Effectiveness :

The choice of advertising medium, the message, and the format are critical ingredients of a successful advertising program (Aduloju et al., 2009). Malthouse et al. (2007) studied the effect of media in context of advertising effectiveness. The qualitative experience of the medium which included prestige of the magazine (Fuchs 1964; Aaker and Brown 1972), expertise of a magazine (Aakerand Brown 1972), effect of involvement with newspaper and magazines (Soldow and Principe 1981; Tipps, Berger and Weinberg 2006) and background complexity of a web page (Bruner and Kumar, 2000) effecting advertising effectiveness.

Consterdine (2010) proposed a model which showed that if 90% of the brand's budget were spent on television advertising and 10% on print advertising, the brand would only hold its share of sales at 40% but if the same budget was split into a more substantially mixed media strategy with 40% of the budget in television, 45% in print, 10% on radio and 5% on outdoor, the brand's share increases from 40% to 44.3% over the period of one year. Therefore, the effectiveness of advertisement can be increased with mixed media strategy. Sonnier et. al (2011) found that response to advertising on the Internet to be similar to response to advertising in other media, except that advertising on the Internet appeared to be easier to ignore. According to Bhatnagar and Ghose (2013), the internet delivers product information. The emergence of the internet has paved way for a more accessible and convenient source of up-to-date information in real-time. However, print advertising is still considered attention grabbing, eye catchy and attractive. This may be due to various favorable factors such as wider reach with lower costs. Also, print advertising is more effective in changing the consumers' attitude towards a product or service, and providing greater visibility. Thus, though internet advertising is growing rapidly and becoming more effective, print advertising still has a role to play in the advertising arena. India has the youngest internet using population making it a popular media of advertising among the youth. The radio also enjoys a widespread young audience.

According to Leong & Larkin (2014), on the basis of informativeness, internet rates the highest and radio is the least informative. The level of attention also follows the same pattern. Television is considered high on the emotions scale while internet is the lowest. Respondents also consider television to convert maximum number of advertisements to sales with the highest precipitating action. Television also rates highest in the "most entertaining" medium. Print media is considered to be the least deceptive of all, while television is the most deceptive. According to Nielsen Global Trust in Advertising Survey 2015, Internet has not eroded trust in traditional paid channels. TV, newspapers and magazines remain trusted advertising formats. More than six out of ten global respondents say that they completely or somewhat trust TV ads followed by slightly fewer trust ads in newspapers and magazines.


Advertising ecosystem has been hugely dynamic and newer forms of advertising media types kept coming with development of technology. Advertising has been at times subtly and many a times conspicuously and aggressively to pursue the agenda of advertising objective accomplishment. Cost of advertising across different media types, competition at the market place and complexity of the customer comprehension have made advertising decision extremely complex.

Advertising effectiveness has been determined by variety of factors, media being an important one contributing to the advertising effectiveness with respect to the desired outcome. The above premise establishes the need to explore the relationship between advertising effectiveness and advertising media types. Studies mentioned above found that almost all advertising media is being accessed across all advertising objectives with least of scientific scaling done to ascertain the effectiveness of different media with respect to different advertising objectives. This leads to wastage of precious resources which many studies emphasize to be optimized. This calls for an urgent need to ascertain advertising effectiveness across different advertising media types in relation to advertising objective stages to optimize advertising resources.

The above discussion calls for an urgent need of exploring the relational impact of advertising objectives among select media types. An attempt can be made to design a relationship matrix between advertising objectives and media types. The proposed relationship matrix is shown below:


By exploring the relationship of advertising effectiveness with respect to several media types, the marketers and advertisers may be made available of the relationship matrix which may be used in resource allocation decision across different advertising media. The study will also be significant in identifying the most effective media type for advertising in the selected industry. Also, it will pave the way for future research work where studies can compare and analyze the similar trends in other industries.


This paper is conceptual in nature. Researchers/ Academician/Organizations can conduct study toempirically validate the model. Different authors and researchers may take different organizations and sectors and products to have different set of such matrix for different industries. This will also help scholars and organizations to compare and analyze trends in different industries. In future many scholars may study the impact of mediating and moderating variables which may affect media types or attitude of consumers in achieving advertising effectiveness. The future researches may also take different set of objectives based on different models like AIDA, DAGMAR, Hierarchy of effects model etc. and media types to compare and optimize the advertising effectiveness.

References :
  • Aaker, David A., and Brown, Phillip K. (1972). Evaluating Vehicle Source Effects. Journal of Advertising Research, 12 (4), 11-16.
  • Aduloju, S.A., Odugbesan, A.O., Oke, S.A. (2009). The effects of advertising media on sales of insurance products: a developing-country case. The Journal of Risk Finance, Vol. 10 Iss 3 pp. 210 – 227.
  • Alloza, A., Both, C., & Benito, M. (2000). General framework: How TV advertising works??). In J. Martínez et al. (Eds.), Research in marketing (pp. 819-857). Barcelona: AEDEMO.
  • Atkin, C.K. (1975). The effects of television advertising on children: survey of preadolescent's response to television commercials. Final report. Michigan: Michigan State University.
  • Batra R., Lehman D.R., Burke J., Pae J. (1995). When does advertising have an impact, A Study of Tracking Dat. Journal of Advertising Research, 35, 4.
  • Bendixen, M. T. (1993). Advertising Effects and Effectiveness. European Journal of Marketing. Vol. 27 Iss 10 pp. 19 – 32.
  • Bhatnagar, A. and Ghose, S. (2013). Online information search termination patterns across product categories and consumer demographics. Journal of Retailing, Vol. 80 No. 3, pp. 221-228.
  • Brett, A.S., Martin, Andrew C., & Bhimy, Tom Agee. (2002). Infomercials and advertising effectiveness: an empirical study. Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 19 Iss 6 pp. 468 – 480.
  • Brown, G. (1991). How advertising affects the sales of packaged goods brands: A working hypothesis for the 1990's. Warwick: Millward Brown International Plc.
  • Bruner, Gordon., & Kumar, Anand. (2000). Web Commercials and Advertising Hierarchy-of-Effects. Journal of Advertising Research, 40 (½), 35-42.
  • Buckingham, David. (2003). Questioning the Media: A Guide for Students. UNESCO: MENTOR. A Media Education Curriculum for Teachers in the Mediterranean. The Thesis of Thessaloniki, First Version, pp. 1-15.
  • Buzell, R. D., (1964). Predicting short-term changes in market share as a function of advertising strategy. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 1 Iss. 3, pp 27-32.
  • Cacioppo, J. T. and Petty, R. E., (1989). The Elaboration Likelihood Model: the role of affect and affect-laden information processing in persuasion in Cafferata, P. &Tybout, A.M. (eds) Cognitive and Affective Response to Advertising. Massachusetts: Lexington, pp. 69–89.
  • Celsi, R. L. & Olson, J. C. (1988). The role of involvement in attention and comprehension processes. Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (September), pp. 211– 224.
  • Chunawalla, S. A. & Sethia, K. C. (2008). Foundations of Advertising: Theory and practices. Himalaya publishing house, New Delhi.
  • Clow, Kenneth E. & Baack, Donald. (2007). Integrated Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing Communications. 3rd ed., Pearson Education Inc., Prentice Hall.
  • Consterdine, Guy. (2010). Magazine Advertising Effectiveness. Journal of Advertising Research, 2 (4), 47-73.
  • Corvi, Elisabetta & Bonera, Michelle. (2010). The effectiveness of advertising: a literature review. 10th Global Conference on Business & Economics, Italy.
  • Dahl, S. (2005). Cross cultural advertising research what do we know about influence of culture on advertising. Discussion Paper No. 28, Middlesex University, London, available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract658221.
  • Farías, Enrique Manzur Rodrigo Uribe Pedro Hidalgo Sergio Olavarrieta Pablo. (2012). Comparative advertising effectiveness in Latin America: evidence from Chile. International Marketing Review, Vol. 29 Iss 3 pp. 277 – 298.
  • Fothergill, J. E., & Ehrenberg, A. S. C. (1965). On the Schwerin analysis of advertising effectiveness. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 2 Iss. 3, pp 298.
  • Fuchs, Douglas A. (1964). Two Source Effects in Magazine Advertising. Journal of Advertising Research, 2 (1), 28-32.
  • Gallup, G. (1974). How advertising works. Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 14 Iss. 3, pp 47.
  • Giri, Ashok V. (2016). Effectiveness of the Advertising Process. Australian Journal of Sustainable Business and Society, Vol. 2, No.1, pp. 81-92.
  • Gibson, L. D. (1983). Not recall. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 23 Iss. 1, pp 39-46.
  • Gorn, Gerald J. (1982). The Effects of Music in Advertising on Choice Behavior: A Classical Conditioning Approach. Journal of Marketing. 4, 6 (Winter),9 4-101.
  • Haley, Russell I., Richardson, J., & Baldwin, B.M. (1984). The Effects of Nonverbal Communications in Television Advertising. Journal of Advertising Research, 24(4), 11-18.
  • Havitz, M. E. & Howard, D. R. (1995). How enduring is enduring involvement? A seasonal examination of three recreational activities. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 4(3), pp. 255–276.
  • Heath, R. (2001). The hidden power of advertising. London: Admap Monographs.
  • Heath, R. (2009). Emotional engagement: How television builds big brands at low attention. Journal of Advertising Research Vol. 49 Iss. 1, pp 62-73.
  • Holbrook, Morris B., & Donald, Lehmann R. (1980). Form Versus Content in Predicting Starch Scores. Journal of Advertising Research, 20(4), 53-62.
  • Hopkins, C. (1945). My live in advertising. Barcelona: Aleu & Domingo.
  • Hong, J. W., Muderrisoglu, A., & Zinkhan, G. (1987). Cultural differences in advertising expression: a comparative content analysis of Japanese and US magazineadvertising. Journal of Advertising, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 55-62.
  • Iwasaki, Y., & Havitz, M. E. (1998). A path-analytic model of the relationship between involvement, psychological commitment and loyalty. Journal of Leisure Research, 30(2), pp. 256–280.
  • Khanh, N. T. T., & Hau, L. N. (2007). Preferred appeals as reflection of culture: mobile phone advertising in Vietnam. Asia Pacific Business Review, Vol. 13 No. 1, pp. 21-39.
  • Keegan, W.J. (2008). Global Marketing Management. 8th ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
  • Kover, A. J. (1995). Copywriters' implicit theories of communication: an exploration. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(4), pp. 596–611.
  • Kotler, P., Keller, K. L., Koshi A., Jha M. (2009). Marketing Management (13th ed.). New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd., Licensees of Pearson Education.
  • Lavidge, R., & Steiner, G. (1961). A model for predictive measurements of advertising effectiveness. Journal of marketing, Vol. 25 Iss. 6, pp 59-62.
  • Leong, E. K., & Larkin, P. J. (2014). Comparing the effectiveness of the web site with traditional media. Journal of Advertising Research, 38 (Sept–Oct), pp. 44–54.
  • Macklin, Carole M. (1988). The Relationship Between Music in Advertising and Children's Responses: An Experimental Investigation [S. Hecker and D.W Stewart (eds.)]. Nonverbal Communication in Advertising (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books), 226-251.
  • Malthouse, Edward C., Calder, Bobby J., & Tamhane, Ajit. (2007). The Effects of Media Context Experiences on Advertising Effectiveness. Journal of Advertising, Vol. 36, Iss 3, pp. 7-18.
  • Milner, L. M. & Collin, J. M. (2000). Sex role portrayals and the gender nation. Journal of Advertising, Vol. 29 No. 1, pp. 67-70.
  • Olney, T. J., Batra, R. & Holbrook, M. B. (1991). Consumer responses to advertising: the effects of ad content, emotions, and attitude toward the ad on viewing time. Journal of Consumer Research, 17(4), pp. 440–453.
  • Pawlowski, D. R., Badzinski, D. M., & Mitchell, N. (1998). Effects of metaphors on children's comprehension and perception of print advertising. Journal of Advertising, 27(2), pp. 83–98.
  • Percy, Larry. (1988). Exploring Grammatical Structure and Nonverbal Communication [S. Hecker and D.W Stewart (eds.)]. Nonverbal Communication in Advertising (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books), 147-184.
  • Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1981). Attitudes and Persuasion: Classic and Contemporary Approaches. Dubuque, IA: William C. Brown.
  • Robertson, T. S., & Rossiter, J. R. (1974). Children and commercial persuasion: an attribution theory analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 1 (June), pp. 13–20.
  • Rossiter, J. R., Percy, L., & Donovan, R. J. (1991). A better advertising planning grid. Journal of Advertising Research, 31(5), pp. 11–21.
  • Rossiter, John R. (1981). Predicting Starch Scores. Journal of Advertising Research, 21(5), 63-68.
  • Rossiter, J. R., & Eagleson, G. (1964). Conclusions from the ARF's copy research validity project. Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 34 Iss. 3, pp 33-34.
  • Soldow, Gary F., & Victor Principe. (1981). Response to Commercials as a Function of Program Context. Journal of Advertising Research, 21 (2), 59-65.
  • Sonnier, G. P., McAlister, L., & Rutz, O. J. (2011). A Dynamic Model of the Effect of Online Communications on Firm Sales. Marketing Science, 30(4), 702-716.
  • Srivastava, Rajesh Kumar. (2010). Effectiveness of global advertisement on culture of India: an emerging market. International Journal of Emerging Markets, Vol. 5 Iss 1 pp. 102 – 113.
  • Stewart, David W., & David, Furse H. (1986). Effective Television Advertising: A Study of 1000 Commercials. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
  • Stout, Patricia A., & John, Leckenby D. (1988). Let the Music Play: Music as a Nonverbal Element in Television Commercials [S. Hecker and D.W Stewart (eds.)] Nonverbal Communication in Advertising, Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 207-223.
  • Tali, Te'eni-Harari, & Sam N. Lehman-Wilzig, Shlomo I. Lampert. (2009). The importance of product involvement for predicting advertising effectiveness among young people. International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 28 Iss 2, pp. 203–229.
  • Tellis, Gerard J. (2004). Effective Advertising: Understanding When, How, and Why Advertising Works. SAGE Publications.
  • Tipps, Steven W., Berger, Paul D., & Weinberg, Bruce D. (2006). The Effect of Media Involvement on Print Advertising Effectiveness. Journal of Promotion Management, 12 (2), 53-75.
  • Traylor, M. B. (1981). Product-involvement and brand commitment. Journal of Advertising Research, 21 (December), pp. 51–56.
  • Valiente, R. (1973). Mechanical Correlates of Ad Recognition. Journal of Advertising Research, 13 (June), 13- 18.
  • Van Evra, J. (1990). Television and Child Development. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Vaughn, R. (1980). How advertising works: A planning model. Journal of Advertising Research, 20 Iss. 5, pp 27-33.
  • Vaughn, R. (1986). How advertising works: A planning model revisite. Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 26 Iss. 1, pp 57-66.
  • Vaughn, R. (1980). How advertising works: A planning model. Journal of Advertising Research, 20 Iss. 5, pp 27-33.
  • Wartella, E. & Ettema, J. S. (1974). A cognitive developmental study of children's attention to television commercials. Communication Research, 1 (January), pp. 69-88.
  • Wells, W., Burnett, J. & Moriaty, S. (1992). Advertising Principles and Practice. 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
  • https://www.emarketer.com/Report/Worldwide-Ad- Spending-eMarketer-Forecast-2017/2002019.