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Family and work are the two important points in the life of an adult. The combination of work and life, known as work life balance, has become an important aspect of the current academic debate (Eikhof, Warhurst, & Haunschild, 2007). A better balance between work and life is an issue for everyone. It is strongly believed that maintaining a balance between career and personal or family life can be challenging and impact an individual's satisfaction in his work and personal life roles (Broers, 2005). It has been observed that work life balance provides for the balanced relationship among work, non- work and family aspects of life. If the work-life is good, the functioning of the organization will also be in a smooth and proper manner. This paper therefore focuses on an in-depth look at work life balance considering in view that balance in work and family life is an emerging challenge for both employees and employers. For this study primary data were collected with the help of a structured questionnaire by using convenience sampling of 200 teachers in management education institution. Secondary data were collected from earlier research work, various published journals, magazines, websites and online articles.
For the past two decades, it has been observed that worklife
balance as well as the need for “good work-life
balance” has featured prominently in countless
academic, practitioner and policy maker debates
(Fleetwood, 2007; MacInnes, 2008). Work-life balance is
the degree to which an individual is able to
simultaneously balance the temporal, emotional, and
behavioral demands of both paid work and family
responsibilities (Hill et al., 2001, p. 49). It is a situation in
which employees are able to give the right amount of
time and efforts to their work as well as their
personal life outside work (Work-life balance, 2009.
Anna, B., 2010). Work-life balance is achieved when an
individual's right to have a fulfilled life inside and
outside work is accepted and respected as the norm,
to the mutual benefit of the individual, business and
society'. Work-life balance refers to the flexible working
arrangements that allow both parents and non-parents to
avail of working arrangements that provide a balance
between work responsibi l i t ies and personal
The teaching faculty members are the facilitators of knowledge and skill through interactive learning methods in management education. Fast changing educational process in the present century has influenced the role of teaching professionals, their responsibilities and teaching activities at management institutes. As a result, they may face “stress in their day to day life through common work and non work stressors, ultimately lowering down their psychological well being. Along with teaching, a faculty member has to perform varied other duties such as doing administrative jobs, attending faculty meetings, advising students, guiding project work, internship, summer placement of students, conducting exams, doing assessment and undergoing faculty advancement schemes. In present times, young teaching professionals are increasingly confronted with a problem of conflict between work role and an equally demanding role at home. An understanding of stress in management teaching professionals may not only form the basis of stress analysis but may also be useful in rationalizing stress behaviour and formulating coping strategies for the entire teaching population.
Jackson, Schwaband Schuler (1986), said that work role stress is a common stressor among professionals. “Occupational stress in teaching has been found resulting in both mental and physical ill health, ultimately having deleterious effect on teacher's professional efficiency.” Camp (1985) observed that though researchers have identified stressors for teacher groups in specific teaching contexts but there is notable absence of research in Indian context. Telschow (1990) was inspired to know effect of stress on health and ways of coping with stress among these teachers. Claxton (1989), through his investigation sought to identify major sources of stress in management professionals and conceptualized three basic premises. French (1988), found that the effects of stress are influenced by gender and length of service. Various personal, family and situational factors are responsible for stress.
H01 There is a significant influence of service duration on
the extent of stress-effects experienced by management
H02 There is a significant difference in the extent of stress- effects experienced by management teachers based on personal factors, family factors and situational factors.
Two sets of variables were selected for this study, namely
independent and dependent variables. The independent
variables were then again classified into two categories,
namely individual and job related variables. All the
variables under study were as follows:
I. Independent variables
The study was undertaken in the Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh, India. The respondents were the faculty members working in the management colleges and selected using the Convenience Sampling method.
A survey study method was adopted for the present study.
A total of 200 questionnaires were used as an instrument
for gathering data from 15 management institutes. The
data collection period fell between September to
72% respondents felt that it is very important and 28% respondents felt that it is important to achieve work-life balance. There were no respondents who were undecided or who felt that it is not important to maintain a balance between work and life. This is a very good sign since considering work-life balance important is the first step towards achieving it.
22% of the respondents said that they were able to achieve work life balance to a great extent, 68% of the respondents said that they were able to achieve work life balance to some degree, whereas 10% respondents were undecided. Thus, there were some respondents who were not sure whether they are able to achieve work life balance or not.
When asked about what they think are the possible causes of work life imbalance, a whopping 54% respondent's accounted heavy workload & extended working hours to be responsible for work life imbalance. 38% respondents said that inability to prioritize and manage time is the cause for work life imbalance, 2% respondents felt that uncooperative superiors and subordinates isthe reason whereas only 6% said that according to them, no help from spouse or family members is the reason for not being able to balance between work and life. This shows that there is fair amount of support provided by spouse and family members to working women.
48% of the respondents said that they face stress sometimes due to their inability to balance between work and life, 32% said they are stressed occasionally and about 6% said they feel stressed lot of times. Thus about 86% of the respondents agreed that they feel stressed at not being able to achieve work life balance either lot of times, sometimes or at least occasionally. Only 12% respondents said that they are not stressed and 2 % chose not to comment.
According to 46% of the respondents, efficient time management (at college/home) is the key to achieving work life balance. While 28% of the respondents said that flexi-time, reduced working hours & other facilities at the workplace can help to achieve work life balance, 26% of the respondents said that help & cooperation from spouse & family members is required.
H01 There is no influence of service duration on the extent of
stress-effects experienced by management teachers.
H02 There is a significant difference in the extent of stress-effects experienced by management teachers based on personal factors, family factors and situational factors.
Source : Primary Data
Respondents do not differ significantly on
Individual factors. The result reveals that the obtained Fratio
(2.34) is not significant at 0.01 levels. Hence the stated
hypothesis is rejected. Therefore, respondents do not
differ significantly in their Work life balance on the basis of
Individual factors. For the influence of service duration on
stress effects, the null hypothesis was rejected. Therefore,
it can be said that service duration also affects the level of
stress experienced by the teachers.
Fast changing educational process in the present century has influenced the role of teaching professionals, their responsibilities and teaching activities at management institutes. As a result, they may face “stress in their day to day life through common work and non work stressors, ultimately lowering down their psychological well being. Along with teaching, a faculty member has to perform varied other duties such as doing administrative jobs, attending faculty meetings, advising students, guiding project work, internship, summer placement of students, conducting exams, doing assessment and undergoing faculty advancement schemes.
The recommendations made by the researcher at the professional level can be given a due thought by the institutional heads. Then, as per the suitability of the needs and availability of resources, each institution can prioritize and implement these recommendations for minimizing stress in their faculty members these leads such a work life balance among women teachers in any educational institution.