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India, is one of the nation in the world, where Indian were more depend on nature, whether it’s food, shelter, medicines, from ancient time, also in present time too. In this way India is largest market of herbal products whether it’s medical or food products. The main aim of this article to survey that to study Patanjali consumer behavior under various scale i.e. ethnocentrism, nationalism, low price seekers, etc. this paper divided into five parts, first part introduction which includes introduction of Patanjali Ayurveda limited, and consumer behavior. Second part review of literature, in this section we tried to summarize various research article on Patanjali products and its consumers buying behavior. Third section research method, survey design five-point Likert scale and data collected by the 100 visiting costumers on Patanjali stores, and descriptive statistics used for the analysis. Fourth section findings shows that the extensive distribution policy, psychological and personality traits play a significant role while consumers select Patanjali products. Fifth section conclusion and recommendation, with a practical implication mode of data collection might be hectic for respondents, there may be a chance of miss conclusion due to small sample size, and its originality/value- This research work was done during my MPhil program in 2017, at that time, there were few researchers did on Patanjali. So during that time, this research was new at wide scale.
The place that is known for Aryans, called Aryavrat, covers a vast region encompassing the Himalayas and is believed to where the Rishis and Munis lived. Around then it covers territories in nations like Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bhutan, and Tibet.
The human advancement of these nations is profoundly affected by the special scholarly commitment of these Rishis and Munis like Charak, Patanjali, Shusurat, Aryabhatt and so forth. The useful precepts of Ayurveda are partitioned into eight segments or branches. These areas are – inner medication, Surgery, Organic solution, Paediatrics, Toxicology, Rejuvenating cure, Aphrodisiac cures, and Spiritual mending.
These eight areas are called "Astanga Ayurveda". Ayurveda is an entire or all-encompassing framework that incorporates the psyche, body, and soul. For a couple of hundreds of years, the conventions of Ayurveda diminished because of the common and human cataclysms and furthermore by the attack of remote culture into India. The sacrosanct test was either annihilated or stolen. However, there were numerous "Vaidyas" or specialists in India who figured out how to protect a portion of the information accessible in the Holy sacred texts. Divine plants that maintain long life and great wellbeing are currently being rediscovered. Many recharged groups of Vaidyas who are represented considerable authority in certain branches of Ayurveda have begun working again in India. Today there is a recovery of the antiquated culture and tradition intrinsic to Ayurveda, which is the endowment of the old human progress to the advanced world.
Because of different sick impacts found in the current solution framework called the Allopathic, other than it has a high mending rate. Along these lines, the general population of the world advances toward the Homeopathy and Ayurveda arrangement of treatment.
Along these lines the Ayurveda rises as the billions dollars industry in India. exhibit day Ayurvedic meds created by the a large number of organizations in India , however the majority of them are very little including various neighbourhood drug stores that compound fixings to make their own particular cures . It is assessed that the aggregate estimations of items frame the whole Ayurvedic creation in India is on the request of the one billion dollars (U.S.). the business has been commanded by the not as much as twelve noteworthy organizations for a considerable length of time, joined as of late by a couple of other have taken after their lead, so that there are today 30 organizations doing a million dollars or more for every year in business to take care of the developing demand for Ayurvedic pharmaceuticals. The results of these organizations are incorporated inside the general classification of FMCG. The greater part of bigger Ayurvedic drug providers give materials other than Ayurvedic inward prescriptions, specific in the regions of nourishments and toiletries. Where might be cover with Ayurveda, such as having conventional home grown fixings in the structure of toiletries? There are so many companies in India, which are working in the field of Ayurveda. But Patanjali Ayurveda limited has channelized their products not only in the field of Ayurveda health products also in FMCG as well as textiles too. To coup up foreign FMCG companies in India they are working to provide products to Indian consumers at comparatively low cost with the best quality. Consumer behaviour toward specific products depends on various elements like cultural factor i.e. Culture, subculture, and social class. Social groups i.e. Reference groups, family and their role and status. Personal factors i.e. age, occupation, economic condition, lifestyle, and personality. Psychological factors i.e. motivation, perception, belief, and attitudes.
II. Literature Review
As world well known that Indian civilization is one of the oldest civilization from ancient time the priest and saints had much medical, health and political reached more than present time, Though Ayurveda which means life-knowledge, has the genesis in the Indian subcontinent, the Indians have been molded to take to the English medicines over the years for their assured faster relief. The origins of Ayurveda are also found in the Atharvaveda which contains 114 hymns and incantations described as magical cures for disease. The Indian Ayurvedic medicine market is not as popular as the allopathic medicine market for various reasons. This article intends to throw light on the performance, perceptions, and judgments about an Ayurvedic medicine brand ‘Patanjali’ – a creation of Baba Ram Dev, who is a dynamic character in the media also for his periodic sensational statements about the current happenings in the nation, which hit the headlines quite often Dr. A. P. Pednekar (2015).through his organization ‘Patanjali Ayurveda ’ shows how through yoga practice we can transform ourselves, control master over the mind and emotions, and overcome obstacles our evolution, yoga is more than Asanas(postures),A.S.Rao(2007). K.Vinod, J.Ankit, R. Zillur, J. Akhil (2014) Man’s culture and believes can affect their buying behavior, it proved by him through performing yoga throughout the world, during his Yoga sessions he trying to aware the world’s consumer about negative effects of chemicals used by the FMCG companies, in this way he succeeded in creating a positive image through spirituality and using to sell his products in the market. The people of the country or locality are always keen towards the natural or Ayurvedic products, in these medicines or other Ayurvedic products are giving a tough competition to the FMCG products market for consumer satisfaction.FMCG firms attracts the consumer by advertisement to gain maximum profit, for this purpose firms hire many actors and actresses, but on other side Baba Ram Dev promote his products on his own, in this way he came out as the role model and promoter of Patanjali Ayurveda, in this Patanjali’s advertisements are seen on most of the TV channels, the main aim behind the promotion is ‘Swadeshi’ (made in India) and to provide pure products to the consumers and also sustain a brand in the Indian as well as international market. S. Deepika and S. Ambu (2017) Today’s consumer wants to know what they can use for their life or what composition of the products, this curiosity of the consumer exploited by the Baba Ram Dev, has to maintain and sustain the quality of own products along with its fastest-growing volumes in the Indian market. Today’s consumer are more health conscious and are maintaining a good quality life, and their preference to consume such products which give them a good state of their health as well as provide maximum satisfaction, the consumer familiarity discipline leads in providing ‘best total solution’ an affirmation that the company helps its consumers recognize their accurate problem and the best solution, ultimately taking charge of implementing it, Baba through his product offerings addresses all three value disciplines offering a unique blend of Ayurveda and Vedic philosophy to provide value for his customers(R. Priyanka, 2016).. Consumers are demanding more herbal and organic products across different categories of personal and home care, Patanjali Ayurveda Ltd. is one of the new entrants in the Ayurvedic and herbal FMCG sector but has already created waves across the country, giving tough competition to the established multinational corporations, product quality, brand image, and trust are the most important factors influencing consumers' decision making in selecting Patanjali products, Association of the name of Baba Ram Dev is also influencing the sales of Patanjali. However, results revealed the average satisfaction of Patanjali products (K.Deepa and C. Mona, 2017).G.Neha and G. Vishal (2016) A firm must study the pattern and scenario of competition in the market, so they can compare various marketing strategies of various companies selling their brands of herbal and Ayurvedic products, it’s very essential that consumers must recognize the importance of Ayurvedic and herbal products in the market so they can develop a positive attitude and have familiarity and favorability towards products sold by the Patanjali. D.Subhankar (2017) Baba Ram Dev's brand seems well configured and ready for take-off. It seems to have all the magic ingredients of success. The brand has moved into e-commerce besides being available with retail chains and under its own distribution centers. The Ram Dev Medicines brand is ready for export with foreign exchange earning potential and could be a great success if marketed successfully given the weakness that the West has for both Yoga and Herbal alternatives. The brand pyramid has legs. Products are available online and through offline retail. And finally, it’s not only his companies that are digital. Baba Ram Dev is himself digital. He has 541k followers on Twitter. Big MNC CEO's are going to find it difficult to match this kind of popularity in the near future. On Facebook, Baba Ram Dev has 5.7 million people liking his page. (Even Facebook could get only 11 million consumers to vote for Free Basics!) And with the development of ‘Make in India’ movement in full swing Patanjali will certainly go to another level due to its ‘Swadeshi’ movement. Baba Ram Dev's sutras in the business world may well have a twist that the MNCs and large Indian firms may find hard to emulate & explain.
Rationale of Study
As we know, now India became the world’s most populous country, India’s 65% of the population still belongs to agriculture and their source of income still limited. There are so many health problems faced by them, the allopathic treatment is still away from them, besides this the government is trying to provide free treatments. Due to the poor financial conditions and lack of medical facilities in the rural areas the mortality rate in children and women has been increased.As a result, the overall life expectancy of the Indians has been decreased.
Statement of Problem
As per the literature review, we can say that Patanjali performing well, in propagating natural treatment and Ayurveda. But the studies conducted by the above mentioned, they may be left something like – The Gandhian approach can work behind the success of Patanjali product or another.
Objective of The Study 1. To Study, the nationalism or ethnocentrism work for choosing Patanjali products
2. To Study, the natural enthusiasm work to choose Patanjali products
3. To Study, the low price sleekness work to choose Patanjali products
4. To Study health-conscious work behind choosing Patanjali products
5. To Study quality sleekness work behind choosing Patanjali products
6. To Study the purity of product work behind choosing Patanjali products
7. To Study the materialistic nature of consumer work behind choosing Patanjali products
8. To Study the innovative nature of consumer work behind choosing Patanjali products
9. To Study the extensive distribution by PAL work behind choosing Patanjali products
10. To Study the consumer focused by PAL work behind choosing Patanjali products
Scope of Study
In an attempt to investigate the impact of consumer’s personal, psychological, extensive distribution policy of company and consumer focus policy adopted by the company. Are these factors responsible for the growth of the company?
The study has been done in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh)’s Patanjali Stores. The study covers Patanjali's consumers of Urban and rural areas, both educated and uneducated people. For the educated consumers, the researcher distributed the questionnaire, for undedicated people researcher performed the task of assistance in filling the questionnaire.
Significance of Study
This study can help marketers and scholars for a better understanding of the Patanjali business strategies. This study may help other ayurvedic companies working in India, which are facing problems in getting consumer orientation and in making marketing strategies.
H0:psychological and personality traits play a significance role in selection of PAL’s goods or products
H1: Psychological and personality traits does not play a significance role in selection of the PAL’s goods or products
H0:the extensive distribution policy and consumer focus strategy play a significance role in the selection of PAL’s goods or products
H1: the extensive distribution policy and consumer focus strategy does not play a significance role in section of PAL’s goods or products
III. Research methodology
1. Research design
I prefer to use survey as my research strategy. Using the survey strategy allows researchers to collect a large amount of data form a sizeable population. The data are often obtained by using a questionnaire that enables the collection of the standardised data, which allows for easy comparison. So this data can be expressed in numbers and analysed quantitatively. For these reasons I found survey strategy to be the most suitable in my study.
2. Sampling methods and size
I have chosen the Strategic sampling under the planned sampling, the basic elements studied are mainly the customer visiting the Patanjali stores.
2.1 Scale use for measure- For measuring, I preferred to useLikert Scale, for making the following steps
Tick (1= strongly agree, 2= partially agree, 3=neutral, 4=partially disagree, 5= strongly disagree)
2.2Questionnaire for pilot survey for pilot survey questionnaire is divided into ten sections, each section has five variables.
2.3Questionnaire for the final survey for this purpose this questionnaire divided into ten sections each section has six variables.
3 Data collection In this research as said earlier that primary and secondary both data are used, so the most suitable method to collect primary data is questionnaire/survey method. For the secondary data collection I have visited various websites of the Patanjali groups. I also refer to various journals, magazines and thesis for the literature review.
3.1 Pilot survey – Under the pilot survey data collected by the 20 visiting consumer to the Patanjali’s store, the questionnaire for the survey was found understandable by the respondents and they were able to responds without trouble and interventions. A preliminary coding and entry was also done in SPSS and trail runs of analysis were performed. Based on feedbacks obtained from respondents and trail run the pilot questionnaire was fine-tuned with some minor changes and final questionnaire was prepared.
3.2 Final survey– Under the final survey data collected by the 100 visiting consumers to the Patanjali’s store, data is collected from educated, uneducated, poor and rich persons.
4. Method of analysis- After data arranged by using SPSS, 87 responses have been found fit for making analysis of my dissertation. Analysis done by using variables frequency in percentage and bar graph of each variable, After making all variables of a sections, then I adopted average method of each variables, making conclusion in each section.
IV. Analysis and findings
A. FINDING RELATED TO THE NATIONALISM OR ETHNOCENTRISM
1. 38.5% of the responders strongly supported that they are strongly focused on production in the nation itself for a particular goods and services , it may be available at low or high cost
2. 16.00% of the responders partially supported, that they are supporting the statement, but the situation or conditions may affect the selection of the particular product and services, but if they meet with their requirement at some stage towards the services or good they like to buy the product, which manufactured in their mother land. 3. 17.5% of the responders neutral, this does not mean that they are not nationalist but their economic and social structure bounded to buy the product that are easily available to fulfil their basic needs.
4. 12.42% and 15.52% they come under the disagreement, again which does not means that they are not nationalists, may be this affect error of the questionnaire design or statement formation.
B. FINDINGS RELATED TO THE NATURE ENTHUSIASM
1. 58.37% of the responders are strongly in support that means they strongly focus on the ingredient of the products which are gifted by the nature not man made by the chemical ingredient.
2. 21.45% of the responders are partially supporting that means slightly focuses on ingredient of the product, but they are in reach with consumer, they are likely to buy the natural based products.
3. 10.72% of the responders are neutral with statement, that means they are situational when they go for the selection of particular product or services, may be other things motivate to buy any product or services.
4. 4.24% and 5.22% responders falls under the disagreement, that does not means they are not natural loving consumer; there may be errors in framing the questionnaire or understanding language of the questionnaire.
C. FINDINGS RELATED TO THE HEALTH CONSCIOUSNESS
1. 31.9% of the responders are strongly supporting, this means at any cost they are not compromising with health when they are going to select a particular product or services 2. 29.23% of the responders partially supported, this means at some instance may compromise with health due to present circumstances and situation, when they are going for the selection of a product or services.
3. 20.1% of the responders are neutral, this means they are not going for the current important work first, but this does not mean they are not caring about their health while selecting a particular goods and services.
4. 9% and 9.5% of the responders falls under the disagreement category, they are not health conscious, it may be in error of questionnaire framing, or understanding with language used in framing questionnaire.
D. FINDINGS RELATED TO THE QUALITY SEEKNESS
1. 36.67% of the responders are strongly in support that means they are not compromising with quality of the product or services, does not matter the cost of the product or services.
2. 23.7% of the responders are in support, that means they are quality seekers but occasionally may compromise but not all the time, while they are selecting a product or services.
3. 21% of the responders are neutral, that means most of time compromises with quality based on the situation.
4. 7.9% and 10.77% of the responders falls under the disagreement; it may be a cause of the error in framing the questionnaire or the languages.
E. FINDINGS RELATED TO THE PURITY SEEKNESS OF THE CONSUMER
1. 25.83% of the responders strongly supported, that they are not compromising with purity of the product or services, the cost of the product or services does not matter.
2. 25% of the responders are supported, that means they are the purity seekers but occasionally may compromise but not all the time, while they are selecting a product or services.
3. 24.1% of the responders are neutral, that means most of time they compromise with purity based on the situation.
4. 11% and 14% of the responders falls under the disagreement, but doesn’t mean that they are not purity seekers, but may be they considered other feature of the products and services while they are buying these products.
F. FINDINGS RELATED TO THE LOW PRICE SEEKNESS OF THE CONSUMER
1. 24.52% of the responders strongly supported, this means they are saw low price of product while they are going for buying goods and services.
2. 24.23% of the responders supported, this means they don’t always go for the selection of low price of the product or services.
3. 20.1% of the responders are neutral, with this they are going to purchase products as per their need doesn’t means they are looking for price of the product .
4. 16.1% and 15.02% responder’s falls under the disagreement, 16.1% selected that some time they buy the products at low price, but always they want to buy products at high cost.
G. FINDINGS RELATED TO THE MATERIALISTIC NATUREOF THE CONSUMER
1. 41.3% of the responders strongly supported, that means they are materialistic in nature while the selecting a product or services
2. 23.4% of the responders partially supported, this means they don’t always show materialistic nature when they are going to buy a product or services
3. 19.4% of the responders are neutral in nature, occasionally shows the materialistic nature while selecting a product or service
4. 7.8% and 7.78% responders are falls under the disagreement that means they are not materialistic in nature.
H. FINDINGS RELATED TO THE INNOVATIVENESS OF THE CONSUMERS
1. 47.7% of the responders strongly supported, this means they are innovative in nature , in all ways they go for the new way for selection of the product or services
2. 24.57% of the responders partially supported, that means they not always go for the new products or services
3. 15.32% of the responders are neutral, this means they don’t always go for the new product or services based on the situation
4. 7.4% of the responders partially disagree, that means they occasionally go for the old product but they are not bounded for the product.
5. 5.08% of the responders strongly disagree, that means they always go for the old product available in market to buy.
I. FINDINGS RELATED TO THE EXTENSIVE DISTRIBUTION BY THE PAL’S
1. 28.87% of the responders strongly supported with extensive distribution by the Patanjali
2. 26.58% of the responders are partially supported with extensive distribution by the Patanjali
3. 24% of the responders are neutral, they decide whether distribution is extensive or not.
4. 9.4% of the responders partially disagree, that means PAL go with extensive distribution.
5. 11% of the responders strongly disagree, that means PAL go with extensive distribution of products
J. FINDINGS RELATED TO THE CONSUMER FOCUS BY PAL
1. 20.81 % of the responders strongly supported , that PAL more focuses toward the consumers
2. 25.43% of the responders partially supported, that PAL partially focuses toward the consumers
3. 23.17% of the responders are neutral, that means they can’t say about the consumer focus by the PAL
4. 11.27% of the responders partially disagree, that may be they go for the consumer focus
5. 17.67% of the responders strongly disagree with the consumer focus
Hypothesis testing H0:psychological and personality traits play a significance role in selection of PAL’s goods or products
For testing null hypothesis, find out the average of A,B,C,D,E,F,G, and H.
1. 38.09875% of the total responders falls under strongly supported
2. 26.77% of the total responders falls under partially supported
From above results we can say that null hypothesis passed. In this way alternative hypothesis consider to be failed.
H0:the extensive distribution policy play a significance role in the selection of PAL’s goods or products
For testing null hypothesis, find out the average of I and J.
1. 24.84% of the total responders falls under strongly supported
2. 26.005% of the total responders falls under partially supported
V. Conclusion And Recommendations PAL is one of the reputed company in the field of Ayurveda and FMCG medicines, it get prosperity in shorter period of time. It got enough fame in India as well as outside of the country. This company mainly run by the Baba Ram Dev and Acharya Balkrishnaji. The business model PAL really become most focuses points of the researcher and business men. PAL exploited the consumer’s their low price seekness, natural enthusiasm, quality sleekness and other personal and psychological traits. Which are become more powerful tools for the selecting decision of the consumer to buy the products.With help of our finding now we can say that the Indian consumers are national and nature enthusiastic in nature, health conscious, high quality seekers, purity seekers, low price seekers, materialistic in nature, innovative in nature, while they purchase consumer durable products. And also their buying behaviour also effected by distribution policy and company’s consumer focus policy. There are few limitations our research work are given below 1. The questionnaire may be hectic for the responder because of number of questions 2. May be some other factors acting behind choosing the Patanjali products 3. There may be a chance of miss conclusion due to small sample size. Taking aside these limitations of this research, there are some recommendations have to made which are given below 1. For the sake of the consumer social responsibility the company needs to publish their annual report, for providing proper information to consumer as well as government. 2. To all the FMCG companies which established in India must follow the business strategy of PALs for the getting rise in the Indian as well as foreign consumer market. 3. The company must show their working process along with their appointment and marketing strategy for the betterment of the nation. Finally concluded my research here, because of the unavailability enough data, in form of the research papers, thesis, or also official data like annual report published by the company. In this way I tried to understand the business strategies adopted by the PALs and also provided some data for the upcoming research on the Patanjali Ayurveda limited. Finally thanks to my guide, head of department, and university to provide me such great opportunity to do something different.