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Almost every area of daily life has changed as a result of the emergence of the Internet, including how consumers connect with one another and learn about product offers as well as how they shop for and purchase goods and services (kim & Lennon, 2008). More consumers are using the internet for a wide range of activities, including shopping and leisure.
There are few studies that have been reported that seek to integrate study findings across studies from a theoretical rural marketing and consumer behaviour perspective, despite the growing interest and attention paid to online consumer behaviour over the past ten years. This literature gap has inspired research into other gaps in the literature as well as this publication. There have been few efforts in relation to rural marketing to incorporate research findings into information systems and other related fields in order to understand online customer behaviour from the perspective of information systems.
The goal of this study is to give a review framework that helps people understand disruptive technologies, such as social media and its impact on marketing to rural areas and other examples. The Howard & Sheth model of consumer behaviour is extended and used in this research as a framework for synthesising findings from the literature.
Disruptive technologies and developments have been crucial in recent years in building value for new markets (Appio, lima, & paraoutis, 2019; Kumaraswamy, garud, & ansai, 2018). Traditional market sectors have been reevaluated as a result of a convergence in the fields of media, consumer electronics, IT, and telecommunications. This convergence has contributed to changes in society expectations and behaviours (elbeck, 2018; hargadon & douglas, 2001)
Disruptive Technology- Emerging technologies that aspire to replace the market leader in each market category are known as disruptive technologies (elbeck, 2018, hargadon & douglas 2001; Reinhardt & gurtner, 2015).
It is either a groundbreaking product that establishes a brand-new industry or one that replaces an existing technology and upends the market. Disruptive technology was first used by professor Clayton M. Christensen of Harvard Business School. In Clayton M. Christensen's model, a new entrant provides an alternative product employing technology that is less expensive but initially subpar compared to products provided by mature incumbents.
Startup businesses have potential to establish themselves significantly in established industries thanks to disruptive technology. Early adopters of the new technology can position themselves as thought leaders in an untapped market. The scope of DT is expanding each time as new developments play a significant role. Disruptive technologies include, for instance, 3D printing, 5G and enhanced connection, blockchain, non-fungible tokens (NFT), AI and ML, AR and VR, Automation and Robotics, cyber security advancements, headless technology, wearable technology, drones, autonomous vehicles, etc.
How it is different from innovation?
Innovation is neither disruptive nor sustainable until it gradually enhances the existing product. However, if it serves an entirely different group of clients or fundamentally alters how the product has previously been used, the innovation qualifies as disruptive.
The American academic Clayton Christensen and his team started developing the disruption innovation concept in 1995, and it has been dubbed the most important business concept of the early twenty-first century. For instance, because early automobiles were expensive luxury items that did not disrupt the market for horse-drawn vehicles, they were not disruptive innovations when they were introduced in the late 19th century. Up until the 1908 release of the less expensive Ford Model T, the transportation business virtually remained unaffected. Because it revolutionised the transportation industry, unlike the first thirty years of automobiles, the mass-produced automobile was a disruptive innovation.
6-D's of Technology Disruption: In his best-selling book Abundance, SU Executive Founder and Director Peter Diamandis outlines a theory for the exponential growth of a digital solution known as the Six Ds of Exponentials.
Consumer behavior- Technology advancements and the widespread usage of mobile devices, which have had a big impact on how people connect and utilise social media and digital marketing, have transformed consumer behaviour in important ways. This has improved consumer perceptions of online shopping, increasing market share for businesses focused on e-commerce (Breidbach & Tana, 2021).
Social media and the internet have an impact on consumer behaviour and company processes. By lowering expenses, enhancing brand recognition, and boosting revenues, social and digital marketing benefits businesses (chohan & Paschen, 2021). Globally, billions of people now regularly use the internet, social media, mobile applications, and other digital communication technology (Dwivedi et al, 2021). 4.54 billion people, or 59 percent of the world's population, are internet users as of January 2020. (Statistica, 2020).
Disruptive technology has altered how marketers view information and use it to engage, delight, and influence consumer behaviour (Basha et al, 2021; breidbach & Tana, 2021; Le & Hsu, 2021). The buyer's culture, subculture, and socioeconomic status must be understood by marketers. There is a social class structure in almost every civilization. The generally stable and organised divisions of society into social classes are made up of people who have similar beliefs, pursuits, and behaviours. Social class is measured as a combination of occupation, income, education, wealth, and other characteristics rather than being determined by a single element, such as income.
Because members of a particular social class have a tendency to behave similarly while making purchases, marketers are becoming more interested in social class. Social classes exhibit distinctive brand and product preferences in categories like apparel, home decor, travel and leisure, financial services, and vehicles.
Social elements, such as a consumer's small groups, social networks, family, and social roles and status, also have an impact on their behaviour as consumers. A new form of social contact, namely online social networking or social media, has emerged in recent years. Online communities known as social media are places where people can interact or share ideas and opinions. Blogs, discussion boards, social media platforms, and even cooperative purchasing sites are examples of social networking networks. These C2C and B2B discussion formats used online have a significant impact on marketers.
Marketers are attempting to market their products and create strong client relationships by utilising the power of these new social networks and other social media.
Social Media- Social media have been extremely important since society has quickly become more social and mobile. People now gather on a plethora of independent and for-profit social networks to interact and share messages, opinions, images, videos, and other types of information. One billion of the 1.6 billion individuals who are active on Facebook alone upload 350 million images daily, generate 4.5 billion likes, and share 4.75 billion pieces of content. (Google as source)
The vast social media wave is currently being ridden by most marketers. A US survey found that 92 percent of US firms now consider social media to be an essential tool for their expanding operations. Intriguingly, social media platforms themselves are learning how to make their communities become ideal platforms for marketing content, in a way that benefits both social media users and companies, at the same time as marketers are learning how to utilise social media to engage customers.
The ability to engage users and encourage social sharing is social media's major benefit. More than any other medium, social media allows for customer participation in creating and disseminating brand content, experiences, knowledge, and ideas. However, social media also comes with certain difficulties. How to use and evaluate the outcome efficiently. The second biggest problem is that social media are heavily influenced by the users. The corporation wants to become a part of consumers' lives and conversations by leveraging social media. Because users have such sway over social media posts, even campaigns that appear to be benign on the surface can go awry.
Rural Marketing- India has 7,00,000 villages, not just a few big cities, where rural marketing is practised. "Villages are still the foundation of India, giving us the food grains, vegetables, and fruits that are essential to our survival." More than 60% of people live in rural areas and rely on agriculture, dairy, related industries, handicrafts, and other businesses. There is a high demand for the goods produced by rural groups at the village, town, city, regional, national, and international levels. For a developing economy like India, rural marketing is essential.
The Latin term "Marcatus," which means goods or commerce or a location where business is done, is the source of the English word "market." Marketing is described as a commercial activity intended to reasonably satisfy client needs and wants, typically through an exchange process. Rural typically refers to an area that is sparsely populated and is located outside of a city or town, as well as a defined commercial, industrial, or residential core. Rural organisations are those that operate out of rural locations. Nowadays, cottage, micro, small, medium-sized, and large-scale businesses operate from rural locations. Farmer Producers' Organizations are growing rapidly as the concepts of producers' organisations and self-help groups catch up with the backing of finance institutions. The term Rural Marketing is a synthesis of two words – Rural and Marketing.
Any marketing activity when the primary participant is from a rural location is considered rural marketing. This suggests that marketing of inputs (goods and services) to the rural market as well as marketing of outputs from rural markets to other geographic areas comprise rural marketing (Kotler, P., Keller K., Koshy A., Jha M.,2009).
Social media, Rural Consumer behaviour & rural marketing-
Rural Consumer behavior- Marketers and businesspeople have taken advantage of consumers all around the world. They are the unfortunate victims of poorer quality items, tampering with pricing, black marketing, fake scarcity, less-weighted products, and appealing product packaging.
As the majority of our nation, or 70% of the population, relies on the primary sector, or agriculture and agricultural economy, we must focus on the research of rural consumer behaviour. They lack a basic understanding of market conditions and are primarily illiterate. Mediators frequently take advantage of the consumers by interfering. Consumers in rural areas differ significantly from those in metropolitan areas. They lack the necessary purchasing power and lack field knowledge. They are also incapable of making decisions on purchases.
Rural Consumer- They live in rural areas, lack literacy, have limited bargaining power, no awareness of the marketing environment, and are illiterate. They have no interest in spending a lot of money on branded, high-quality goods. But over time, individuals are also becoming accustomed to using technology in their daily tasks. The hamlet residents' way of life is changing along with the country's current economic progress.
Rural setting Consumer attitudes have a greater impact on the sales of goods and services related to agriculture, horticulture, and handicrafts. In particular, when making purchasing decisions, consumers have certain specific beliefs, feelings, trust, goodwill, and consistency regarding some branded trademark goods and services.
Agriculture marketing strategy for the production of various rural goods should always be client-focused. When customer satisfaction increased, not only did rural customers continue to be served, but new customers were also drawn in. This is possible if the rural manufacturer or former sells their goods at competitive pricing and high quality.
There are Five popular inter disciplinary dimensions of consumer behaviour-
Internal determinants of Rural consumer behaviour-
External determinants of rural consumer behaviour-
Our research is based on the Howard and Sheth model of consumer behaviour, which may also be used to examine consumer behaviour in rural areas.
A comprehensive integration of the numerous social, psychological, and marketing factors on customer choice into a cogent information-processing flow is the Howard Sheth Model from 1969. It tries to create an empirically testable representation of consumer behaviour and its results in addition to explaining consumer behaviour in terms of cognitive functioning (Howard 1977).
Stimuli are inputs that are available. There are various outputs, ranging from paying attention to a specific stimuli to making a transaction. There are factors influencing perception and learning in the space between the inputs and the outputs. Since these factors cannot be explicitly measured at the time of occurrence, they are referred to as "hypothetical" variables.
An integrated model is what this one is. It presumes that purchasing will involve troubleshooting and problem-solving techniques as well as the addition of more inputs and outputs. This model demonstrates the steps and types that influence consumer behaviour both before and during the buying process. It highlights the crucial elements like-
b) Perceptual & Learning constructs
c) outputs and
d) Exogenous or external variables
It discusses how consumers evaluate several items to decide which one best suits their needs. Needs-based, satisfaction-driven motives are what drive good-directed behaviour. Stimuli such as items, advertisements, and product information are examples of inputs. Motives, attitudes, perceptions, social influences, and individual characteristics all have an impact on consumer behaviour.
(Based on Howard & Sheth model of consumer behaviour)
Social Media & Rural Marketing- Social media marketing makes use of these platforms to increase online presence and market goods and services. Social media platforms are helpful for forming social (and professional) networks as well as for transferring information. Web 2.0 is a movement that describes changes in how users and software developers use the Web and includes social media networking. The Web is being used increasingly collaboratively, which fosters innovation and knowledge sharing. Through open applications and services, users can participate and cooperate online in a more dynamic and user-driven manner. The user must be able to create, distribute, remix, and repurpose content, thus it is essential that it is available to them.
To reach a broad or specific audience, social media marketing employs tools including podcasts, wikis, blogs, folksonomies, online videos, photo and news sharing, message boards, and posts on social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter.
How social media is influencing the rural consumers and ultimately leading to rural marketing-
social media platforms relying on serendipitous information and quality content.
Avoid aggressive or invasive sales tactics using social media sites.
Excessive use of Internet and risky online behaviour.
Consumers value the judgments of colleagues more than their preferences, which indicates an external persuasive power.
Conclusions- Social media is a revolutionary technology that has changed the way we conduct our daily lives. It has altered the way we communicate with others, gather and exchange information, voice our thoughts and grievances, go shopping, and even how we manage our emotional connections. Currently, it is in the democratisation stage of the 6Ds. At this time, the technology is widely available, everyone can use it to make their life easier, and the product is being used on a daily basis. Social media, particularly for rural marketing, is becoming into a key instrument for increased accessibility and reach and, eventually, for maximising the organization's profitability. Rural customer behaviour is still a very difficult task for marketers, and profit maximisation depends on better understanding of rural consumer behaviour and usage of disruptive technology. In this study we have taken only social media as stimuli but other disruptive technology like neuro marketing, big data, IOT, AI & ML, AR & VR may impact the rural marketing in some or greater extent. It may lead to future scope of study in this field.
Bibliography & References-